AcneAcne starts when oil and dead skin cells clog up your pores, which can develop into swollen, tender inflammations or pimples. Heredity and hormones are the culprits behind most forms of acne, but sometimes other factors such as stress and the use of comedogenic skincare or cosmetic products can also aggravate acne.
Expert advice: Wash your face twice a day with a cleanser that contains salicylic acid, advises Thomas-Minns. "This anti-inflammatory ingredient will kill off the bacteria that gives rise to spots, and can also help to keep outbreaks at bay." If you're prone to zits, it's also important to use the right products -- look for 'non-comedogenic' labels, which means the product won't clog your pores.
PigmentationHyper pigmentation are dark patches of uneven skin color. "It can be caused by hormonal influences (for example, pregnancy) or trauma to the skin after inflammation caused by spots or UV exposure," says Thomas-Minns.
Expert advice: The most important thing you can do is to protect your skin against spot-causing UV rays -- by using a broad-spectrum sunscreen with a SPF of at least 15 containing titanium dioxide or zinc oxide, she advises. Apply it everyday and avoid long hours of exposure under the sun. To help lighten pigmentation, active ingredients like Vitamin C can be effective in brightening the pigmented areas.
RosaceaRosacea is a chronic skin condition that causes redness, spidery blood vessels, swelling and/or acne-like symptoms across many areas of the face. The redness may come and go. The exact cause of rosacea is uncertain, but some triggers are known to cause a flare-up, such as hot weather, stress and spicy foods.
Expert advice: Avoid the common triggers which can cause the blood vessels in the face to expand and make the redness more pronounced -- stress, spicy foods, alcohol, hot baths and extreme temperatures. Reduce heat, pressure and friction and keep product use simple, advises Thomas-Minns.